As part of our Fake News Week series, Brandwatch was delighted to chat to Dr Delia Dumitrescu and Andrew Ross about their research on social media, the press, and how misinformation can find its way into both.
Dr Delia Dumitrescu is a Lecturer in Media, Culture, and Politics at the University of East Anglia, and has dedicated much of her academic career to studying how people react to different kinds of communication.
“I work on a variety of things, but mostly they have to do with psychology and communication, and the impact of exposure to communication on behaviours and attitudes and the mechanisms behind those behaviours and attitudes,” she says. She’s particularly interested in visual communication.
Meanwhile, Andrew Ross started his academic career in applied psychology before later moving into politics and political communication, which is where he met Dr Dumitrescu. They’ve worked on various fascinating projects since.
Ross is now a researcher at Loughborough University where he works as part of the Online Civic Culture Center (O3C), a multi-disciplinary team that looks at what the impact of social media is on civic culture.
Together, Dumitrescu and Ross have done a lot of fascinating research. While we can’t cover it all here, we’ll be diving into some of their findings around social media vox pops and hearing their thoughts on fake news in 2020.
The evolution of the vox pop
Vox pops are a way for journalists to get the voices of the general public into their news articles. Traditionally, that might mean chatting to random people on the street to gauge their feelings, and quoting them in an article.
But in today’s high-pressure newsrooms, journalists don’t always have the time to pop out and gather opinion from ‘the man on the street’. Instead, they’re looking to social media to gather opinions.
“You don’t even have to leave your seat to get a vox pop now,” explains Ross. “And obviously that’s a very attractive thing to do if you’re a hard-pressed journalist who’s got more and more content to write and less and less time.”
Perceptions of public opinion
Inspired by previous research, Dr Dumtrescu and Ross co-authored a study on how vox pops sourced from social media in online news articles affect people’s perceptions of public opinion.
For example, does including a larger number of posts that are in favor of an issue affect how people perceive the wider publics’ view?
“Our research suggests that the ratio of opinions – if you have more pro-issue opinions than anti-issue opinions in an article – can significantly influence the way readers perceive wider public support to be for that issue,” says Ross.
“Just the collection of tweets actually influences perceptions of public opinion,” says Dr Dumitrescu. “You can give an indication that public opinion goes one way or another. Or you might give the indication that public opinion is split – let’s say you have an equal number of tweets on each side – which might not actually be the case. It’s an indication of where public opinion is going that’s not based in reality.”
You can find the full paper here.
So vox pops used by journalists in online articles can influence how we, as readers, perceive the wider public to think about a particular issue. So what?
The implications, as the academics explain, are actually pretty terrifying.
“This may have down-the-road impacts on democratically relevant things,” says Ross. “Because we know perceptions of public opinion can influence the way people think about which party they might vote for, which candidate they might vote for.”
The overrepresentation of positive social posts about a politician, for example, can give the impression that the public generally is in favor of that politician.
Additionally, and this the real Fake News Week kicker, the social posts quoted in online news sources aren’t necessarily written by real people.
For example, state-sponsored ‘troll’ accounts have been quoted by what are usually regarded as trusted news sources.
“Some of them [the troll accounts] got very good at writing very eye-catching posts that perfectly fit a certain narrative. As a result, a lot of different news agencies were found to have included these posts as genuine vox pops within their articles,” says Ross.